ItemSudden Cardiac Arrest in the Residential Setting: The Valuation of Off-Duty Professional Firefighters on Crowdsourced Emergency Response in Metropolitan Cities(2023-04) Young, Brian WayneThe purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of off-duty professional firefighters when asked to render emergency care outside of the traditional work setting through crowdsourced technologies. The research focused specifically on the provision of lifesaving interventions to individuals experiencing sudden cardiac arrest in residential settings in metropolitan cities because the availability of public safety resources is typically fixed, and off-duty professional responders may be a viable solution to increase survival rates. The theoretical framework of the study was grounded in the foundational concepts of Pareto optimal/efficient allocation. The research aimed to identify whether leveraging off-duty trained responders could potentially address the issue of resource allocation in public safety. The research followed a qualitative case study methodology, focusing on sudden cardiac death in out-of-hospital settings. Semistructured virtual interviews were conducted with off-duty professional firefighters to understand their perceptions of the topic. The emergent themes provide insights into individual responses to sudden cardiac arrest, which enabled the identification of opportunities to help solve the problem. Two perspectives emerged from the research, namely an individual and an operational perspective. The individual perspective was refined into either a service focus or a safety focus, and the operational perspective was refined into a resource availability focus or a crowdsourced response technology focus. The predominant position was that off-duty professional firefighters are comfortable responding to sudden cardiac arrest in a residential setting in certain situations. However, the belief that they will universally respond to private settings when alerted is false. The study recommends that crowdsourced emergency response technologies continue to evolve to meet the needs of the end user. Overall, the findings suggest that technology-based, crowdsourced solutions can have an impact by saving lives. The research contributes to the understanding of off-duty responders’ perceptions and identifies potential opportunities for the development of crowdsourced emergency response technologies. This study provides a valuable contribution to the field of public safety resource allocation and emergency response planning. ItemInterpretation of the Lived Experiences of Los Angeles County Hispanic Male Leaders: An Exploration of the Impact of Mentorship on Ascension Into Executive Leadership(2023-04) Rojas, DanielAs demographically diverse public organizations tend to produce policy outcomes that reflect the interests of all represented groups, including disadvantaged communities, how underrepresented ethnic groups in public leadership positions such as Hispanic males ascend to senior-level positions is significant. As the Hispanic population grows exponentially in the United States, one should see a commensurate growth in Hispanic executive leadership to accommodate the needs of its consumers and constituents in public and private enterprises. However, among chief executives of all U.S. organizations in the public and private sectors, 29.3% are women, 4.3% are African American, 5.4% are Asian, and 7.4% are Hispanic (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013). Hispanics have seemingly remained underrepresented in these and other leadership roles relative to their numbers in the U.S. population. This qualitative study examined the impact of mentoring as a vehicle for career ascension through my interpretation of the lived experiences of Hispanic male leaders in LA County, a predominantly Hispanic-populated region comprising 48.6% or 4.9 million Hispanics of approximately a 9.8 million population. This study aimed to facilitate human resource organizations in creating organizational strategies to aid in creating diverse workforces. The attribution and role modeling theories undergird this study to enable an understanding of the mentoring phenomenon related to producing motivation for career ascension. Following Moustakas’s (1994) transcendental phenomenological method, I conducted 11 open-ended qualitative interviews with various Hispanic male senior-level leaders from LA County and extracted the essence of their statements for analysis in contextual settings associated with this ethnic group to gauge impact. This analysis manifested significant themes that were categorized into four nonmutually exclusive primary mentoring dimensions: career support, negative experiences, psycho-social support, and role modeling. From this conceptual framework, I found that most experiences in these mentoring dimensions produced enhanced motivation stemming from enriched self-efficacy leading to positive work performance and career-related outcomes. This study’s findings identified the following ideas of interest: individuals are adaptative in low-mentor or adverse settings, cross-gender mentoring is beneficial, family support is instrumental to academic and career advancement in Hispanics, and professional networks can be vital in amassing social capital from mentoring relationships. ItemLocal Risk Management Process and Influence on Community Risk Perception During the COVID-19 Shelter-at-Home Orders: Multiple-Case Study of the South Texas Counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Nueces(2023-04) Rabe, Laura IrmaThis study examined local public health organizations’ (LPHOs) risk management processes in the three South Texas counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Nueces during the COVID-19 pandemic local Shelter-at-Home orders. The research primarily focused on each LPHOs' risk management processes during the COVID-19 Shelter-at-Home orders to ensure effective collaborative governance between local governments and their agencies and risk communication activities on the Facebook social media platform. The risk management process discussed in this study included these two guiding principles: collaborative governance and risk communication. In addition, this study refers to the LPHOs’ risk management process as the public health emergency management network (PHEMnet). PHEMnet focuses on the emergency management activities of the LPHOs, from issuing orders to communicating them to the public using Facebook. The risk perception theory was used to assess the influence of the risk communication messages published on Facebook to the public during the shelter-at-home orders and amendments. This study employed a multiple-case study using a mixed methods approach to gather data and research findings. The content analysis focused on the local Shelter-at-Home orders and amendments issued. The sentiment analysis assessed the LPHOs’ Facebook posts and community comments to determine their overall sentiments about the local mandates and community risk perception. In addition, the types of unified command approaches were identified through the content analysis of the orders and LPHOs' Facebook activity during this period. This research found a correlation between the sentiments expressed on Facebook and the type of unified command approach used by each jurisdiction. The research concludes that the jurisdictions that had established stronger PHEMnets had lower sentiment polarity values among the public, demonstrating the community's trust toward their LPHO and overall acceptance of the Shelter-at-Home order. However, weaker PHEMnets had the highest sentiment polarity values among the community, further demonstrating the importance of fostering an effective PHEMnet with necessary public health stakeholders to build a positive and active community presence to have an effective risk management process for current and future emergencies. ItemImpact of California Community Colleges Student Centered Funding Formula on First-Generation College Students at Minority Serving Institutions: An Exploration of the Perspectives of Student Services Professionals(2023-08) Mills, George Godfrey JrPurpose. This study aims to examine the impact of the Student Centered Funding Formula (SCFF) on a selection of California community colleges that are Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) from the perspective of student services professionals at these colleges to understand the equity implications of the formula for first-generation college students. Theoretical Framework. This research is based on resource dependence, principal–agent, and critical race theory. Methodology. A qualitative phenomenological case study was conducted using open-ended interviews with 18 student services professionals to gain insight into their perspectives on the SCFF and the impact of the formula on first-generation college students from the lens of student services professionals at minority-serving California colleges. Findings. This research found three impacts on minority-serving California community colleges because of the SCFF and three ways student services at minority-serving California community colleges could mitigate any negative impact on first-generation college students. In addition, this study found that there is no shared understanding of the funding formula or the implication of the funding to minority-serving California community colleges. Conclusion and Recommendations. This phenomenological study provided critical feedback on the SCFF from student services professionals. The findings from this study concluded that minority-serving California community colleges will be impacted by the SCFF, and although there is no shared understanding of the formula, the student services professionals interviewed were able to share their perspectives that there are things that student services could do to mitigate any negative impact to first-generation college students. The researcher offered recommendations that allow student services leaders to take positive actions toward mitigating any negative impacts on the colleges and first-generation college students while building institutional cohesion and collaboration and centering students in the approach to meeting the metrics by holistically approaching the metrics rather than addressing them piecemeal. ItemCommunity Policing Phenomenon: Perceptions of Congregational Members of Faith-Based Organizations on Community Policing in Two Multicultural Community Districts in San Diego, California(2023-04) Hoskins, Terry T.The current nationally polarized views on law enforcement indicate a dearth of mistrust between communities and law enforcement officers. Law enforcement officers swore to protect and serve those same communities. This deficiency in law enforcement culture suggests a necessity for an accurate and efficient evaluation of the current community policing phenomenon. These inadequacies indicate additional concerns that affect the heart of community policing. This absence necessitates legitimacy and efficiency characteristics by using collaboration between the community, law enforcement, and elected officials to problem-solve and derive working solutions to concerns that detract from community safety and security. The research questions were designed to accentuate the participant’s actual lived experiences concerning the phenomenon of community policing from their perception. The participants’ responses provided significant evidence for determining desired community policing practices, emphasizing transitioning from current policing approaches to one desired by the communities served. This phenomenological research was intended to provide reliable feedback on the current community policing phenomenon practices from the perception of participants who have lived the experience of this community policing phenomenon firsthand. ItemMotivation to Break Through Occupational Barriers: A Case Study of Female City Manager’s Career Progression(2023-04) Fisher, MirandaAccording to data compiled by the International City/County Management Association’s Career and Equity Advancement Team, in 2021, 19 percent of city managers were women. This low percentage of women in the role means that it is considered to be a male-dominated occupation. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to explore what characteristics women possess that motivate them to break through occupational barriers to attain the highest non-elected municipal government leadership position. Using the Trait and Behavioral Theory of Leadership, Motivational Theory, and Role Congruency Theory as the theoretical frameworks, this study investigates, analyzes, and interprets the findings obtained from interviews with 16 Colorado female city managers to assess the occupational barriers these women had to face as well as the motivation and characteristics they possess that aided their career progression. The findings from this study conclude that although the occupational barriers the participants faced were not as pronounced as the researcher initially anticipated, the female city managers interviewed were able to share valuable insight into what it means to be a city manager, including what motivates them to continue to work in the role, what leadership characteristics they felt were essential to success, and their recommendations for future city managers. Understanding what characteristics women possess that motivate them to break through occupational barriers is vital in addressing occupational segregation within the public sector and this research seeks to help motivate and inspire future generations of women to pursue a career as a city manager and be successful in doing so. ItemA Place-Based Study of Race, Economic Status, Health, and Recreation Spaces in Orange County, California(2023-04) Alexander, BrasonPurpose. Recreation spaces have long been valued as essential to society because of their mental, physical, and social benefits. The question then becomes, is equitable access to recreation spaces across communities? The specific problem examined in this study was whether the geographical distribution of recreation spaces in Orange County affects the health equity of the cities within the county boundaries. Orange County was a significant area to study because it is home to 34 incorporated cities, 3.1 million people, over 857 outdoor recreation spaces, over 75,784 acres of outdoor recreation spaces, and 122 indoor recreation spaces. Theoretical Framework. The study used place-based theory that states geographical locations have a relationship with environmental variables. The researcher used a place-based theory to analyze the geographical locations of recreation spaces and their relationship with race and economic status of Orange County, California cities. The study compared the equity of recreation spaces with the racial and economic status in cities of Orange County. To inspect the possible implications of a community, the researcher created a dasymetric equity map of Orange County. The index used scores based on residents’ ages, the city's walkability, data on indoor recreation spaces, and data on outdoor recreation spaces. Findings. Ultimately, the study found that there are disparities in geographical locations of recreation spaces concerning race and socioeconomic status. The wealthier a community, the more outdoor recreation spaces and the larger the area occupied. The whiter a community, the more outdoor recreation spaces and the larger the area occupied. The number of indoor recreation spaces showed a significantly weaker relationship with race and socioeconomic status. Conclusions and Recommendations. Cities located in North Orange County and inland were predominately those that scored in most need of recreation spaces. The four cities with the best distribution of recreation spaces were all located on the coastline: Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Dana Point, and Laguna Beach. ItemICT as a Strategy for Sustainable Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria(2022-12) Agwaniru, AmakaPurpose. This phenomenological qualitative study investigated the information communication technology (ICT) strategies that were instrumental to the success and sustainability of leading small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria. Sustainability entails profitability, growth, innovations, and business evolutions that ultimately lead to the survival of SMEs. The potential implications of this study include effecting positive social change through increased utilization of ICT tools such as e-commerce and internet technologies by SMEs. This will subsequently increase their chances of survival and elevate their innovative capacities to improve business operations and profitability. In addition, the study may serve as a resource for policy makers in government to formulate policies that will promote the adoption of ICT by Nigerian SME owners. Theoretical Framework. The study was hinged on the resource-based view (RBV) theoretical framework. The RBV theory is a model that examines resources as key to superior firm performance and sustained growth. The framework also maintains that a firm’s resources must be valuable, rare, imitable, and heterogeneously distributed across the organization to achieve a competitive advantage. The study explored literature and arguments that posit that ICT can be transformed to possess those qualities despite its seeming commonness. Methodology. The participants for this study consisted of executive-level SME leaders who have the authority to approve ICT implementation within their respective organizations. Semistructured interviews were conducted with these participants using open-ended questions. The purpose of the questions was to elicit responses derived from the participants’ actual experiences with incorporating ICT as a foremost strategy for sustainability. This methodology was in line with the phenomenological research approach, which draws upon the subjective lived experiences of participants to provide a detailed account of specific variables. ItemElectronic Health Record Fatigue in Patient Care at Public Hospitals in Northern California(2022-08) Vejendla, DeepakThis mixed methods study examined provider perceptions of electronic health record (EHR) fatigue and burnout and their effects on care efficiency and effectiveness at public hospitals in northern California. The study identified factors that affect EHR user interface experience and patient safety. The research problem is whether EHR fatigue is driving burnout among providers and (b) burnout affects patient care. The study employed a convergent parallel design, which combined interviews of medical providers and the Q-methodology. The study found that EHR utilization is associated with fatigue caused by increased work burden, especially in fast-paced clinical environments. Providers perceive the association of EHR to efficiency as positive. EHR user interface complexity, conducive organizational culture, and organizational support are factors contributing to the EHR user experience. EHR is associated with higher patient safety and fewer sentinel events. The study’s findings provide further empirical affirmation of the predictions of the job demands–resources theory and Freudenberger’s theory of burnout and highlight the theoretical importance of the effectiveness-efficiency theoretical paradigm of public administration, including the legacy of scientific management. The findings have implications for the management of public health care organizations and for public policy and administration. ItemThe Effects of the 2020 COVID-19 Extreme Death Event on the Health of Funeral Industry Workers(2022-12) Threatt, Brenda E.The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed America’s emergency response and medical systems. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ([CDC], 2020) defined the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic as an extreme death event causing a large number of people to die in a short period of time. This study examined the impact of the COVID-19 extreme death event on the funeral industry. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to analyze the effects of the 2020 COVID-19 extreme death event on the health of funeral industry workers and the subsequent possible impact on the overall funeral care industry. This researcher conducted 20 interviews with funeral industry workers who worked in funeral homes in 2020. The phenomenological interviews captured the data from the personal experiences shared by each of the participants. This study demonstrated how the extreme death event resulted in the emotional distress of funeral industry workers. The findings from this study concluded that funeral industry workers are essential workers in a national health crisis who suffer the same stresses that first responders and medical professionals suffer. The findings provided information about improving the health of all essential workers during a national health crisis and thereby improving the systems that address public health. This study may produce further interest in individuals who work in the deathcare industry and help to bring the value of their services on par with those of first responders. ItemA Phenomenological Study of Customs and Border Protection Officers’ Perspectives and Their Influence on Becoming an Emergency Medical Technician(2022-12) Ng, Henry Y.U.S. Customs and Border Protection is the major agency regulating commerce and travel in the United States. Although one of its primary foci is intercepting illicit goods and people, it also provides another important public service—responding to medical situations when encountered. Customs and Border Protection has employees who are also emergency medical technicians though this number is small. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the motivational factors for Customs and Border Protection officers who are also emergency medical technicians. The theoretical framework for this study was based on self-determination theory. A purposeful sample was used to recruit participants for in-depth interviews. Although there are emergency medical technicians in other states and other components of Customs and Border Protection, this study only focused on officers working in California. Results from this study revealed three motivating factors and five benefits for participants. The researcher also discovered people’s lack of knowledge of EMS within Customs and Border Protection as a major challenge for participants. The researcher recommended basic education explaining what EMS encompasses in Customs and Border Protection and raising awareness of its benefits. This study can be expanded by conducting similar studies with other components and states in Customs and Border Protection to determine whether there are similar results. In turn, this study can be used to improve the agency’s response to medical situations. ItemGaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Cost-Share: Programmatic Benefit or Limitation?(2022-12) Johnson, SophieThe purpose of this study was to determine whether the matching requirement of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) grant is an arbitrary administrative stipulation of the grant or whether it adds meaningful value to the program. If the GEAR UP grant’s matching requirement is a detriment to the program, this study sought to determine to what extent. Three frameworks shaped this study. First, the researcher used a similar study conducted by Jeremy Hall in 2010 as a frame of reference. Hall (2010) studied economic development grants in three southern states to discover whether the matching requirement creates a disproportionate burden on nonmetropolitan counties. This study also relied upon the theoretical framework of bureaucratic encounters established by Kahn et al. in 1976. Finally, the researcher viewed this study through Barry Bozeman’s 1993 etiology of red tape. This study used a mixed methods explanatory sequential design methodology utilizing a quantitative digital survey and qualitative interviews to study GEAR UP project directors of partnership grants. This study concluded that the grant’s matching requirement is not a prima facie programmatic limitation. However, poor intraorganizational relationships and existing internal red tape exacerbate the administrative burden of match. Finally, educational organizations interested in pursuing a GEAR UP grant must scrutinize their motivations. This study found those educational organizations whose motivations to apply for the grant align with the grant’s mission are likely to be more successful than those organizations that simply seek another revenue stream or want to add another accolade to their educational achievements. ItemFinding the Right Guide to Successful Academic Pathways: The Significance of the Academic Advisors and the Completion Rate Success of Students within the California Community College Guided Pathways Program(2022-12) Borden, Justin A.The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of academic advisors who are servicing the needs of students within the California community colleges participating in the Guided Pathways initiative. In addition, the study sought to provide a detailed understanding of the perceptions of (a) the academic advisor’s role in the community college meeting the goals outlined by the California Guided Pathways initiative and (b) the community college’s role in affecting the success rate of students enrolled in the Guided Pathways-based programs. For this study’s theoretical framework, the researcher looked at human relations and classical organizational theories, tying in how behavior outcomes are connected to one’s relationship with perceived leaders and the environment. The researcher interviewed 12 academic advisors from two California Guided Pathways Project institutions. Through the modified Stevick-Colaizzi-Keen (SCK) method, the researcher identified six themes that have successfully impacted academic advisors’ attempts to guide students within the Guided Pathways Project. This research found that the lack of an effective student onboarding method harmed the success of the Guided Pathways program as well as how the indecisiveness/unpreparedness of students contributed to higher caseloads for academic advisors. As the California community college system is about to embark on its Guided Pathways 2.0 initiative, it would be beneficial to review these findings as they are still evident. ItemWomen Leaders in STEM: A Case Study of Naval Surface Warfare Center Corona Division(2022-08) Beauchamp-Hernandez, Tomás G.Over the past several decades, there has been an increasing workforce demand for talent in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career fields. Although women make up 27% of the STEM workforce in the United States, they make up 25% of the STEM workforce at Naval Surface Warfare Center Corona Division, and just over 5% of these women reach the level of becoming a high-grade senior-level employee. Through the lens of self-determination theory (SDT) and self-efficacy theory (SET), this research sought to understand how high-grade women STEM professionals have been successful in a federal laboratory environment, why they have continued their STEM careers, and what impacts, if any, can be attributed to organizational culture. A qualitative phenomenological case study was conducted using open-ended interviews with eight women high-grade STEM professionals to gain insight into their lived experiences and assist the researcher in identifying intrinsic and extrinsic sources of motivation within SDT and the impact of SET on the participant's lived experiences. This study revealed the impact exclusion biases could have on career growth and inclusivity within an organization, the effectiveness of passive enablers and the impact of formal champions and mentors, and the need to focus on a healthy work–life balance when evaluating the impact organizational climate and extrinsic motivation factors have on the retention of women in the STEM career fields. The study further revealed the intrinsic and extrinsic sources of motivation that encourage women in the STEM career fields to remain in their profession, including the level of enjoyment while working in a STEM career field, how feeling valued and respected also provides purpose, and how having a manageable work–life balance impacts retention. The recommendations based on the findings from this study are insightful for public sector organizations and leaders at all levels to understand how to retain and motivate STEM professionals regardless of gender identification. ItemRisk Sharing and Governance Through Public–Private Partnerships in Africa: Evaluating the West African Public Health Sector Experience(2022-08) Asamudo, AritBackground: The gap between preserving and improving infrastructure to meet the needs of citizens has led governments and policymakers to rely on public–private partnerships (PPPs) for the delivery of public services. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to analyze the risk sharing and governance in the West African public health system while focusing on health care PPP drivers through a critical analysis of the approach to health care PPPs in West Africa. It explored the perception of health care recipients and key informants on the collaborative processes, challenges, successes, and failures. Methods: The study used the phenomenological approach of the qualitative method by conducting semi structured, open-ended interviews with health care recipients and key informants in Nigeria, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Togo. Data were analyzed using NVivo, a qualitative data analysis tool, to discover emerging themes. Results: The analyzed data revealed that the delivery of public health services in these countries is hindered by inadequate risk assessment and issues with accountability, management, and governance. The rural dwellers must travel many miles to access public health care, and their community health centers are manned by health care aides otherwise called auxiliary nurses. These factors and the unavailability of doctors have resulted in ineffective and inefficient service delivery. The study also revealed the ineffectiveness of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) and the PPP model in use. As a result, the current risk sharing and governance method is ineffective. The findings equally revealed that these countries have the same drivers of PPP and that institutional and innovative changes are possible and can lead to better service delivery because PPP had previously led to effective service delivery. Conclusion: Best practice recommendations for risk assessment, sharing, and governance in public health care delivery in West Africa are beneficial for the sustainability of positive institutional and innovative changes from successful PPPs. The challenges with accountability, understanding the drivers of health care PPP and a suitable PPP model for the delivery of health care services were revealed by this study. A suitable PPP model has been suggested. ItemAn Exploration of Public High School Teacher Dispositional Beliefs Regarding Teaching in a National Pandemic Environment: A Case Study(2021-05) Schon, Dina M.Understanding the beliefs that influence secondary public school teachers’ decisions to stay in the profession presents areas of public policy concern for all stakeholders. The negative effect on taxpayers is an estimated $8 billion annually. The COVID-19 pandemic has ushered in an unprecedented level of professional frustration for public secondary school teachers. An original desire to understand the beliefs that influence teacher attrition within two secondary public high schools in Southern California morphed into an eagerness to understand how beliefs undergird decisions to stay while in a pandemic. Methodology approaches for qualitative studies include questionnaires, interviews, and focus groups. The effectiveness of these approaches was challenged as COVID-19 impacted our national education system and affected teachers both personally and professionally. The account of this researcher’s exploration into the uncharted waters of the utilization of these methods during a pandemic was captured to glean answers to why teachers may decide to stay in the profession. ItemThe Role of Relational Contract Governance in Improving Performance in Human Services Delivery(2021-12) Nwafor, UchennaCurrent findings in the human services contract literature suggest that contract relationships between government and its nonprofit contractors, which are “relational” in nature (i.e., characterized by collaborative, nonadversarial, and flexible interactions), facilitate effective outcomes in contracted human services delivery. However, despite its potentials for improved government performance in this sector, findings also indicate that public and nonprofit implementing managers vary in their use of relational approaches in contract implementation. This qualitative study explored the interpersonal context of the contract interactions of counterpart managers implementing Florida’s contracted child welfare services to identify the factors that encourage or potentially inhibit their use of relational contract practices in implementing the child welfare contract. Agency theory provided a framework for understanding “arms-length” transactional contract relationships as an accountability mechanism utilized by government in contracting. As a complementary theoretical lens, relational contract theory provided an explanatory framework for why government and its contractors collaborate and cooperate in complex contract situations and the mechanisms for ensuring accountability and performance. A qualitative exploratory research approach and the use of semistructured interviews allowed for gleaning rich insights from 17 implementing managers of the Florida child welfare contract. The findings from the study suggest that mutual trust between counterpart managers built through ongoing informal dialogue, the transparent sharing of contract-related information, and mutual responsiveness encourage relational contract interactions between counterpart managers. However, a lack of leadership support for collaboration between the contract partners may hinder relational interactions with counterpart managers. The study concluded that relational contracting as a formally articulated governance approach is necessary for overcoming the implementation challenges created by Florida’s child welfare contract model and supports the policy intent of the Florida community-based care privatization model. The researcher recommends that the Florida partnership consider implementing management and organizational strategies that promote the practices and values associated with relational contracting. The researcher also recommends that the Florida partnership equip managers with the skill sets and competencies supportive of relational contracting as a strategic approach to reprogramming current organizational cultures. ItemThe Administration of Police Consent Decrees: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Reducing Pattern and Practice of Police Use of Force(2021-05) McGuire, TarrickAs a reform instrument, federal consent decrees have been used by the U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division to address issues associated with unconstitutional police misconduct. A problematic area of concern is police behavior involving the excessive use of force on minority citizens. The purpose of this comparative case study was to determine whether or not the implementation of consent decrees in the New Orleans and Seattle Police Departments resulted in a reduction of the use of force 3 years after implementation, in comparison to 3 years preconsent decree implementation. This study aims to contribute to closing the gap in understanding regarding what policy implementations may be useful in correcting patterns of behavior in police misconduct and in closing the gap between best practice conduct and actual patterns of behavior and unconstitutional practice. Integrated with this study, Lewin’s change model is used as a guiding philosophical framework for this study, positing that organizational and underlying behavioral change occurs in three phases: (a) unfreezing, (b) changing, and (c) refreezing. These three steps explain the process by which longstanding patterns of adverse police misconduct may be altered, how resistance may be addressed, and how new ideal behaviors may be normalized and habituated. ItemAn Analysis of Policy Implementation: A Case of Children With Developmental Disabilities in Zambia(2021-12) Lifanu, Inonge N.Background. In Zambia, individuals with disabilities and their families rely heavily on governmental services, policies, and programs. Individuals with disabilities in Zambia have limited access to services that could help them reach their full potential. Consequently, several important policies with good intentions are adopted but not successfully implemented. The Zambian government formulated the National Policy on Disability to address disability issues and empower individuals with disabilities. Purpose. The reason for this study was to explore disability policy implementation by analyzing cases of children with developmental disabilities through the lens of service providers and policymakers. This qualitative study aimed to examine the Zambian disability policy implementation and evaluate its outcomes. Methods. Policy implementation processes were evaluated using the policy streams theoretical framework. Semistructured interviews were utilized to draw the perceptions of parents and guardians of children with developmental disabilities, policymakers, and service providers. Data were analyzed using NVivo, a qualitative data analysis computer program, to discover the emerging themes. Results. The national policy on disability has negatively affected the quality of services for children with developmental disabilities in Zambia. The findings reveal that although the policy was well formulated, it failed in its implementation because of gaps in service provision and access to services. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate areas of improvement for policy implementation, such as ensuring accessibility of services, community sensitization to promote awareness, political will, and capacity. Collaboration among the three policy groups also emerged as a key component of policy implementation success. When the three policy streams come together and a window of opportunity appears, there is a better chance that the policy would be successfully implemented. ItemLimited Resource Allocation Within FEMA’s Hazard Mitigation Assistance Program: An Exploration of Efficiency(2021-12) Garvin, JohnPurpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship federal Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant allocation has with the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and the various elements closely associated with efficient spending (efficiency), estimated income per capita (equity), and historical damages and number of repetitive loss properties (effectiveness), by identifying the presence or absence of correlations. Theoretical Framework: This study draws upon a moral framework grounded in rule consequentialism in order to establish allocative guidelines based on efficiency and effectiveness within the public sector. Methodology. This bivariate correlation analysis examined 2,504 FEMA Region 6 communities that were eligible to receive HMA funding between the years 2000 and 2017 based upon NFIP participation and inclusion in a presidentially declared, flood-related disaster. A Pearson’s correlation coefficient was conducted utilizing HMA dollars allocated as the dependent variable and historical damages, number of repetitive loss properties, and estimated income per capita as the three independent variables. Findings. This study found a statistically significant, positive, correlation at the 99% confidence level for each of the three independent variables. However further analysis indicated that 38 outliers significantly impacted the strength of the correlations and that these outliers were associated with extraordinary, large scale, disasters. Conclusions and Recommendations. This study concludes that based on the strength of correlation and indicated relationship between FEMA’s HMA allocation and a community’s historical damages and number of repetitive loss properties, FEMA is currently allocating its limited resources in an effective and efficient manner. However, evidence suggests that this efficiency and effectiveness is reduced in smaller scale disasters. Furthermore, this study recommends additional analysis with a more holistic damage data set that captures damages beyond those recorded by the NFIP.