ItemTHE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MICROAGGRESSIONS, RACE-BASED TRAUMATIC STRESS, AND POSTTRAUMATIC GROWTH: ASSESSING THE MODERATING ROLE OF CHRISTIAN GRATITUDE FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN CHRISTIANS(2023) Zivanovic, Stephanie GregoriusIn the current study, the author sought to understand the relationships between Christian gratitude (CG) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) following racial and ethnic microaggressions (REM) and race-based traumatic stress (RBTS) in a sample of self- identified Black American Christians living in the United States (N = 157). More specifically, using a moderated mediation analysis, the researcher explored the mediating role of RBTS in explaining the link between REM and PTG, using CG as a moderator between RBTS and PTG. The findings showed a positive association between REM and PTG (a medium effect). Further, a positive association appeared between REM and RBTS and RBTS and PTG (both medium effects). Finally, inconsistent with the proposed hypothesis, the index of moderated mediation was not significant. In other words, CG did not moderate the relationship between RBTS and PTG. Post-hoc mediation-only analysis revealed that RBTS was a significant mediator of the association between REM and PTG. The author examines the therapeutic implications of the findings as well as potential directions for future research. ItemUNDERSTANDING STUDENT SERVICEMEMBERS THROUGH THE LENS OF APA'S LAYERED ECOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE MULTICULTURAL GUIDELINES: AN INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW(2023-08) Weber, SarahWhen separating from the military, there are several transition paths servicemembers can take. Due to generous increases in the GI bill, many transitioning servicemembers will elect to use their educational benefits and transition into the role of military-connected student. While this is not a new topic in the literature, there is a need to organize what we know about this population and their higher education experience in a clinically useful package. The purpose of this integrative literature review, therefore, is to synthesize the literature about this population of student servicemembers and veterans (SSM/Vs) and organize it within the APA’s layered ecological model of the multicultural guidelines. As such, this review recognizes the SSM/V population as a distinct cultural group influenced by many overarching cultural and contextual factors such as military culture, cultural incongruities/culture clash in civilian settings, pre-existing diversity factors, and more. Using a search strategy adapted from PRISMA guidelines, a literature search identified 203 clinically relevant peer-reviewed articles and edited books. Guided by the APA’s multicultural guidelines, clinical implications and recommendations for future research are also offered to better equip mental health professionals in the service of this culturally unique population of U.S. higher education students. ItemPOSTTRAUMATIC GROWTH AND CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE AMONG CHRISTIAN ADULTS: THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GOD ATTACHMENT, SURRENDER, AND TRAUMA SYMPTOMS(2023) Stutz-Johnson, JaimeeChildhood sexual abuse (CSA) impacts an individual’s future psychological development and is a predecessor for stress-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Hailes et al., 2019; McKay et al., 2020; Paolucci et al., 2001; Rodriguez et al., 1997; Subica, 2013). Drawing from several different bodies of literature (e.g., attachment theory, religious coping, posttraumatic growth), the study investigated whether attachment to God is related to posttraumatic growth (PTG) and trauma symptoms among a sample of Christian adults with a history of CSA. Further, the study examined if surrender to God as a form of religious coping mediates the relationship between attachment to God and PTG. Using an online sample of Christian adults from Amazon’s MTurk who reported CSA, the study utilized Hayes’ PROCESS macro to determine if a relationship exists between these variables (Hayes, 2022). The study concluded that surrender mediated the relationship between anxious attachment to God and PTG, and trauma symptoms positively correlated with anxious and avoidant attachment to God. However, no mediation relationship existed between avoidant attachment to God, PTG, and surrender to God. The results are discussed in the context of broader clinical implications for Christians and mental health professionals. Limitations and areas for further research will also be examined. ItemUnderstanding Help-Seeking Behaviors Among East Asian Americans in Cases of Child Maltreatment(2023-08) Saito, AfumiWith the limited research on cross-cultural issues affecting child maltreatment among ethnic minority groups, including East Asian American populations (Maker et al., 2005), it is essential to examine the literature to understand better the needs of these groups and the factors affecting help-seeking behaviors in cases of child maltreatment. It is also important to explore the role of cultural factors, such as cultural values, and the potential ways these may influence experiences and perceptions of child abuse. This literature review explores cultural factors and their associations with perceptions of child abuse and help-seeking intentions. Hence, it aims to demonstrate culturally adaptive and effective ways to work with East Asian Americans when they seek help in mental health services, whether voluntary or not, in cases of child maltreatment. The goal is to help clinicians effectively assess and intervene in potential child abuse situations and to work with East American families in a culturally sensitive and effective manner. In addition, the findings of this literature review will assist in providing suggestions for future research. ItemRELATING TO OURSELVES, OTHERS, AND GOD: THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INTERNAL WORKING MODELS AND TRAUMA SYMPTOMS IN THOSE WITH ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES(2023) MacCallum, JessicaAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are known to be associated with trauma symptoms (TS). However, the details of this relationship require further research. Using Bowlby’s internal working model theory (IWM), a moderated mediation was proposed as a framework to conceptualize the impact of ACEs on TS in adulthood. Christian adults (N = 219) were recruited to complete measures for ACEs, trauma exposure after the age of 18, TS, and three factors (attachment, alexithymia, and religious/spiritual struggle [RSS]) hypothesized to influence the relationship between ACEs and TS. Specifically, within the moderated mediation, insecure attachment (anxious and avoidant) was hypothesized to be associated with TS through alexithymia, and this relationship was hypothesized to be moderated by RSS. The results indicated significant associations between variables corroborating existing literature on the correspondence hypothesis in the God attachment literature. This can additionally point towards the value of conceptualizing the impact of ACEs through an IWM. However, the overall moderated mediation model was not significant. A post hoc analysis revealed that the relationship between insecure anxious attachment and TS was independently mediated by alexithymia, highlighting that the variables presented here contribute to the experience of trauma. Clinical applications, limitations of the study, and future directions for research are discussed. ItemCultural Identity in Transference and Countertransference Involving Borderline Personality Disorder(2023-08) Estrada, Melanie ElizabethBorderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex disorder characterized by emotional instability, interpersonal and intrapersonal difficulty, and impulsivity. As a result, there are many preconceived notions about those diagnosed with the disorder and what clinical work may entail. One way to conceptualize these preconceived notions is to consider them as a form of countertransference. Clients with BPD are more likely to evoke countertransference reactions from the clinicians that work with them than clients presenting with other disorders. Countertransference reactions in clinical work with the diagnosis may stem from various sources, including transference reactions and cultural identity. The current literature review explores BPD, countertransference, transference, cultural identity, and how these constructs interrelate in clinical work with BPD. Results revealed overall challenges in identifying articles for the present review was the lack of studies jointly focused on the constructs under review. To effectively address the interplay of culture, transference, and countertransference in cases involving BPD it was necessary to draw conclusions by piecing together the findings of studies often not intended to focus on one or more of these variables. Implications for clinical practice and training, and recommended future directions for research will be discussed. ItemA Review of the Potential Barriers to Providing Services and Making Referrals for Mental Health Disorders by African American Pastors in the Black Church(2023-08) Edison Riley, DeAndraHistorically, the Black Church has been a stable institution providing various social service resources within the African American community. Pastors within the Black Church are valued as credible sources of assistance for the many social and psychological problems that impact its parishioners and the community. African Americans deal with various mental health concerns and may struggle with more persistent mental disorders, yet African Americans seek treatment for mental illness at lower rates. This literature review examines the potential psychological, social, cultural, and religious/spiritual barriers that may prevent African American pastors from referring to professional mental health providers (e.g., counselors/therapists, psychologists, and social workers) and providing mental health services to their congregants within the Black Church. A review of current mental health collaboration and strategies for promoting initiatives dedicated to increasing collaboration efforts between African American pastors and mental health professionals will also be examined. ItemATTACHMENT EXPERIENCES OF LATINO YOUTH EXITING THE FOSTER CARE SYSTEM: A QUALITATIVE STUDY(2023-08) Bojorquez, DianaEvery year the number of Latino/Hispanic children and youth who enter and exit the foster care system continues to increase. Many studies focus on relational experiences, however, several overlook Latino/Hispanic populations, including cultural differences. Therefore, this study focuses on the attachment experiences of Latino/Hispanic adults who exited the foster care system and how cultural differences impacted their outcomes. The study seeks to understand the attachment experiences of former Latino/Hispanic foster youth through retrospective accounts. The study examined which relational experiences provided ongoing support, where these supportive relationships and resources were found, and what made them helpful. A convenience sample of 12 former Latino foster youth emancipated from the foster care system or juvenile detention centers were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using grounded theory, NVivo software, and super-ordinate coding. The analysis produced seven qualitative themes: (a) Forgotten or Distorted Memories, (b) Lack of Support, (c) Lack of Meaningful Contact with Biological Families, (d) Repeated Abuse and Traumas, (e) Positive Impact From One Secure Relationship, (f) Adult Connections with Biological Families, and (g) Difficulty Creating and Maintaining Healthy Relationships. Overall, former foster youth who reported having at least one significant relationship during or after their foster care tenure described a more positive outcome. The themes presented similarities (e.g., attachment disruptions, lack of support, etc.) and differences (e.g., collectivist values, Latino values, etc.) between Latino foster youth and their Caucasian and African American counterparts. Future research directions consider preventive measures, culturally sensitive services, generational differences, adverse childhood experiences, and countertransference. ItemRESILIENCE IN SINGLE-PARENT HOUSEHOLDS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A LITERATURE REVIEW(2023) Bledsoe, Benjamin ScottThis dissertation serves as a literature review to explore and identify how single-parent households have coped with the onset of COVID-19 and living in post-pandemic society across the world. Historically, single parents have experienced several types of hardships that can impact their ability to achieve financial and educational security whilst also being able to adequately care for their children. In addition to this, without the presence of a partner/network that can provide a second income or additional childrearing support, single parents may often feel that their roles are limited to working or childrearing, with little socialization with friends or peers. The COVID-19 pandemic compounded these issues by restricting access to jobs/work and preventing individuals from gathering. Furthermore, parents had to assume additional roles and academic moderators to ensure that their children were still attending online classes as campuses were closed. During these times, single parents experienced high levels of stress, role overload, mental health concerns and fear for financial instability. Research has indicated that despite these increases in types of stressors, single parents who engage in at least one type of resiliency strategy are able to decrease the level of role overload they experience as well as develop more positive perceptions about their situations. This positive outlook may ameliorate their relationship with their children, but further research is necessary.