ItemUnderrepresentation of African American Women in Senior Leadership: A Qualitative Study(2023-08) Williams, TameecaThe purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the phenomenon of underrepresentation of African American women in senior leadership. The researcher incorporated three theories: intersectionality, fair representation, and cognitive diversity to research a possible symbiotic relationship toward African American women’s low representation. The use of these theories assisted the researcher in being able to take a comprehensive look into the lived experiences in various forms to address perceived barriers confronted by African American women when attempting to obtain senior leadership positions. Furthermore, these theories afforded the researcher opportunities to explore how race and gender factored into the trajectory of African American women’s career paths. The study focused on the experiences of 11 African American women ages 35-59 who were interviewed using Zoom videoconferencing and telephone conferences. The researcher utilized 16 open-ended questions that were recorded with permission and transcribed into NVivo10 to capture coded themes to aggregate data for possible congruency with the selected theories. The researcher discovered six significant themes: professional growth, validation, sponsorship/mentorship, credibility, authenticity, and networking. Additionally, the researcher discovered two unexpected themes,’ tokenism’ or a ‘oneness’ aspect., which are described in the paper. The study displayed a theoretical construct that allowed participants to discuss personal accounts, including attributes that contributed to biases, stereotypes, and assumptions within organizational attitudes and behaviors impacting African American women’s advancement to senior leadership positions. The researcher recommends further investigation into the underrepresentation of African American women in senior leadership in professional settings. ItemWork-Life Balance, Family Culture and Women’s Leadership in the UAE(2022-12) Bokaii, SamarWomen's empowerment and women's leadership are important in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In the recently developed National Strategy for the Empowerment of Emirati Women (UNESCO, 2016), the UAE government emphasizes the support and empowerment of women in the workplace and society. Emirati women have greatly benefitted from the steps taken by the UAE government to empower women. As a result, the country now has the world's highest rate of female representation in the Federal Parliament and a growing number of women entering the workforce (Fyfe, 2013). However, there is still room for greater numbers of women in positions of leadership in the UAE. In addition, some have expressed concern regarding the high employment turnover rate for Emirati women, which is influenced by job satisfaction, quality of work-life (Jabeen et al., 2018a), and the work-life balance of Emirati women (Nanjiani & Dahlstrom, 2017). Therefore, more research on these topic of women’s advancement in the UAE and other Arab nations is needed. This study intends to assess the influence of work-life balance and the role of women's family culture on women's attainment of leadership positions in the UAE. The study adopts a mixed methodology, beginning with the collection of quantitative data from a questionnaire focused on the factors that influence their work-life balance using a non-probability sampling technique from 58 Emirati women leaders. Data gathered from the quantitative study was analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS.v.25). The second part of the research utilizes qualitative interviews to explore more about UAE women’s perspectives on work-life balance and the influence of the family culture on attainment of leadership positions. The qualitative data was collected from 12 Emirati leaders who complete the initial quantitative survey through a semi-structured interview. The NVivo (v.12) software program was used to code the qualitative interviews. The findings of this study revealed that women leaders in the UAE face various challenges, including gender bias, male-dominated occupations, cultural norms, sociocultural beliefs, "wasta" in procuring jobs, and lack of support (family and organizational). The results of this study will provide information about the factors that influence Emirati women's leadership in the UAE, which may help leaders and policymakers identify future areas of focus for the goal of empowering women in the country. ItemThe Empowerment of Black Businesses to Assist their Communities During and after a Disaster: An Ethnographic Study(2023-08) Walker, NicoleDisadvantaged communities, especially those populated by African Americans, are some of the most negatively affected communities during and after a natural or manufactured disaster. Systemic and systematic racism and institutionalized distrust have hampered African American/Black-owned businesses from scaling successfully, preventing them from providing economic opportunity and other necessary resources to their communities and further compounding the sluggish recovery of disadvantaged communities. Using a qualitative research method based on critical theory, this ethnographic study aimed to identify ways to position African American firms as an asset to their communities during and after a natural or manufactured disaster. ItemWomen’s Professional Growth Trajectory in California in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic(2022-12) Epperson, LaShan M.The economic disruption caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic has substantial implications for gender equality and subsequent recovery. Compared to all other recent recessions, which have historically affected men's employment more severely than women's employment, the employment disruption related to social distancing protocols primarily impacted sectors with a high count of women in the employment sector. In addition, closures of schools and daycare centers increased childcare needs, which significantly impacted working mothers. The effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on working mothers are likely to continue. Because of the current volatility in the labor market, opposing forces may ultimately cause gender inequality in the labor market. Business leaders are strategizing ways to adopt flexible work arrangements quickly. Diversity, equity, and inclusion will also be a significant focus to ensure that women are included in the workforce. Many fathers have now had to take primary responsibility for childcare, which may erode existing social norms. This may ultimately lead to a redistribution in the division of labor. ItemThe Underutilization of Women of Color in C-Suite Positions: A Phenomenological Study(2022-12) Chapman, Lisa J.As societal views regarding women continue to change in the 21st century, organizations are also revolutionizing by attempting to create a more diversified workplace where women of color play an inclusive role, especially in C-suite assignments. The underutilization (insufficiency of the portrayal) of women of color in C-suite positions is reflective of a corporate culture that fails to meet diversity and inclusion policies. Hence, the development of a novel conceptual model may assist an organization in meeting these policies by understanding how to cultivate a corporate culture that positively affects an individual’s behavior and intrapersonal development. The study followed a contingency principle that when an organization elects to diversify its C-suite assignments with the inclusion of a greater number of women of color, it develops a workplace that is reflective of the communities and societies it serves. Additionally, the organization has an opportunity to evaluate its corporate social responsibility and ethical standards in a manner that supports diversity and inclusion, increases profitability, and contributes to the economy. This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of nine women of color who hold or have held C-suite positions and how they mitigated racial and gender bias. As a result, the study found three emerging themes: (a) explicit bias, (b) marginalization, and (c) hyper-invisibility. Based on these findings, this study proposed the use of the Chapman organizational influence on corporate culture, individuals, and cohesiveness (COICIC) model to fulfill the purpose of diversity and inclusion practices. The study endeavors to fill in the gaps in the literature by illustrating the value of diversity through the inclusion of women of color in C-suite positions. ItemFinancial Advisor Decisions and Behavioral Biases(2022-08) Garduno, Jeremy C.Various studies have examined investor behavioral biases and the perceived value financial advisors provide to their clients. However, the academic literature examining behavioral biases among financial experts is scarce. This qualitative study focused on understanding what behavioral biases affect the portfolio manager and financial advisor decision process. The results of this study indicated that advisors are not immune to many of the same behavioral biases found in individual investors. The dominant biases found in this study supported past empirical findings on expert biases. Participants’ responses from this research indicated that advisors’ conformity and experiences led to advisor herding and overconfident behaviors. Data-driven results showed that advisor conformity could manifest into a moderate-risk bias. Moderate-risk bias is the advisor’s tendency to classify investment allocation and client risk tolerance to a moderate-risk level. Another key finding was that advisor behavioral bias awareness aided the advisor’s financial decision making process. The more advisors were aware of biases the more they could clearly articulate that bias to clients. Advisors’ responses during interviews indicated that if they could effectively communicate and discuss that behavior with clients, they could adopt practical strategies to suppress behavioral biases and avoid predictable cognitive errors. Early adoption of bias suppression could have practical implications in understanding and explaining advisor value to clients. ItemDiversity: Reality or Illusion? A Case Study of Fortune 500 Companies, Executive Suite Hegemony and Misrepresentations(2022-05) Edwards, TerryMarginalized individuals face many workplace challenges ranging from discrimination, the lack of promotions, inequitable pay distribution, gender inequality, ageism, and other forms of discriminatory practices. These challenges can be complicated if there is a lack of allies or if a workplace is not conducive to inclusion or diversity. The stigma regarding these issues remains elusive as managers and corporate executives grapple with the changing dynamics of a modernized workforce. Therefore, corporate executives must enact policies and procedures that strive toward balance and equal representation within the workplace. This study examined executive suite hegemony and its impact on diversity. The purpose of this research was to provide significant insights into the barriers that ethnic minorities face within Fortune 500 companies. From these insights, corporate executives and managers on every level within organizations can make informed decisions on how to manage diversity. Organizational culture consists of a certain set of values or beliefs that are unique to an organization. A specific belief system shapes the culture of an organization and its governing behaviors through the implementation of policies and procedures that influence many business practices. From this research, the role of corporate governance has emerged as one of the significant factors affirming its vital role in cultivating diversity in organizations. Affirmative action policies to remedy gender, racial, age, and other forms of discrimination have been implemented in corporations worldwide. Implementation of affirmative action policies enhances corporate governance and contributes significant impacts to diversity. ItemServant Leadership: U.S. Navy Job Satisfaction(2021) Johannsen, Jocelyn M.This quantitative study was an examination of the level of servant leadership characteristics practiced by U.S. Navy leadership and the impact they have on job satisfaction of U.S. Navy personnel. The survey instrument used to measure servant leadership of leaders as received by the U.S. Navy personnel was the Servant Leadership Measure. The Job Description Index (JDI) was used to measure the level of job satisfaction of the U.S. Navy personnel. In this quantitative, correlational research study, 148 participants completed an online survey comprising the Servant Leadership Measure and Job Descriptive Index. The population comprised individuals selected from two private U.S. Navy Reserve groups through a social media platform. ItemThe Challenge of Fundraising: The Correlating Relationship Between Resource Dependence, Decision Making, and Organizational Performance(2021) Braunwalder, AustinThe challenge of fundraising to supplement an organizational mission is present across the vast majority of all nonprofits. As most nonprofits are bound by the obligation to secure funding to fulfill their purpose, involuntary resource dependencies evolve. This qualitative research investigated the challenge of nonprofit fundraising through an analysis of the correlation between resource dependence, professional fundraiser decision making, and organizational performance through the theoretical lens of the resource dependence theory, the transaction cost theory, and the population ecology theory with a primary focus on the main research question: “How do nonprofit resource dependencies affect fundraiser behavior with respect to organizational performance?” This study supplies a historical context of how nonprofits formally developed and why the challenge of fundraising came to be. Through the implementation of a triangulated data collection methodology, this phenomenological study argues that resource dependencies of nonprofit organizations influence fundraiser behavior, which then positively and negatively affects the organization’s financial stability. Using higher education nonprofit institutions located in Southern California for the sample data collected through semistructured interviews, the conclusion is made that the organizational structure of the sampled institutions most heavily influences the ability of the nonprofit institution to remain financially stable while seeking heightened donor contributions. The recommendation is made to employ a diversified revenue approach at the organizational level in conjunction with an individualized fundraising approach. ItemEmbracing Live Stream Video: A Virtual Conundrum(2020-04) van Haaster, Philip A.Relationships develop between people. In their infancy they are cautious and experimental, but upon maturation they become trusting and reliable. Businesses are interested in hastening this process, as commerce is also an event occurring between people, and 2 parties that trust the goods or services of each other welcome a free exchange agreement. This transfer is not limited to the tangible but also encompasses idea- and knowledge-sharing within an organization, the ability to make quality decisions, and action-oriented collaboration. With the global expansion of organizations, the reality of remote teams, and an increasing desire among talent to operate on a flexible schedule, establishing functioning teams that flourish has become ever more challenging. Reframing the issue into a relationship and trust development challenge allows organizations to introduce live-streaming during remote video conferencing as a solution to maintaining a meeting community. Testing surveys from remote-meeting participants in a global organization collected streaming habits during meetings and their opinions surrounding the effect live-streaming can have on building trust, establishing engagement, deploying a high-performance team, technical challenges, and privacy considerations. The data were analyzed with a binomial logistic regression to establish predictive behavior and employee markers that can be used by industry to create training and education. The Likert 5-point scale results were also contrasted between the streaming usage and no streaming usage groups with an independent samples t test, with significant differences found between the 2 user groups when considering effectiveness on building trust, engaging team members, and ultimate team performance. ItemBurnout, Hardiness, and Intent to Turnover Among U.S. Healthcare Ancillary Managers(2020-04) Moua, Shua JoyceThe healthcare industry has many challenges that increases the likelihood of burnout among employees to include emotional fatigue because of caring for sick patients, long work hours, and the physical demands of the job. The purpose of this quantitative research study was to investigate hardiness, burnout, and intent to turnover among ancillary managers within a U.S. healthcare organization. Studies have focused on clinical staff burnout with research on burnout among nurse managers, nurses, and physicians. However, there have been limited research studies investigating burnout, hardiness, and intent to turnover among ancillary managers. There is a high demand for top talent, both on the clinical side with jobs such as nursing or physicians, as well as with ancillary managers who help to ensure operations and organizational goals are met. As managers play an important role in the organization, it is important to better understand the relationship between burnout, hardiness, and intent to turnover among ancillary managers in healthcare organizations. ItemRetention and Turnover of Millennials in the Workplace: A Qualitative and Phenomenological Methodology(2020-03) Hamilton, Douglas EdwardThe purpose of this study was to conduct qualitative phenomenological research (a) considering the impact of a good jobs strategy (GJS) on retention intentions of millennial employees while (b) seeking to understand any significant motivation and hygiene factors influencing millennial retention and turnover, and (c) understanding any significant change management efforts required for implementation of a GJS. This study was based on Herzberg’s (1964) motivation-hygiene theory with specific application for the millennial generation. Using a phenomenological approach, semistructured interviews were conducted using 13 random millennial participants who volunteered and responded to a flyer posted on a bulletin board in Starbucks and posted on the principle investigator’s LinkedIn social media page. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for the purposes of this study. Three themes emerged from the data including individual factors, organizational factors, and environmental factors. Ten subthemes also emerged from the data, which included recognition and praise, pay, feedback, career opportunities, time off, flexibility, management, culture, job elements, and team. The overall findings in this study, related to the factors that serve as motivation and hygiene factors for the millennial generation, closely align to Herzberg’s two-factory theory. As the number of millennial generation workers continues to grow in the workplace over the next few years, this study may assist organizations and managers in understanding the motivation and hygiene (de-motivation) factors of the millennial generation in an effort to reduce millennial turnover and increase millennial retention.